Ammissione 2022 punnet square

Hi, how would you answer this question? how should the punnet square should look like?
what is independent and associated characters? is it the same as independent assortment or is it something else?
(correct answer is A)

Thanks :pary:


since the offspring have at least the phenotype of one recessive the allele, the cross must be AaBb x aabb
the expected phenotype ratio is 25%AB 25%Ab 25%aB 25%ab
since we do not have this ratio, the genes are not following the rules of Mendelian genetics, meaning they are most likely linked/associated genes

independent character is not the same as independent assortment
When genes are found on different chromosomes or far apart on the same chromosome, they assort independently and are said to be unlinked. When genes are close together on the same chromosome, they are said to be linked.

punnet square: