[Biology][Practical-19] HIV Questions


  • How is HIV treated? The treatment for HIV is called anti-retroviral therapy (ART) . However, it cannot cure HIV but only increases the survival rate.

  • HIV is a type of retrovirus that is derived from the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV)

  • HIV is a retrovirus, which means that it has RNA instead of DNA and uses the host’s cells to convert it into DNA, thanks to its reverse transcriptase

  • How does ART work? ART stops the multiplication of the virus and reduces its number inside the body. This helps the patient stay healthy.

  • Describe the structure of HIV:


  • HIV targets T cells = CD4 cells

  • How can HIV be transmitted?

Through direct contact with some infected body fluids. This includes:

  • blood
  • semen
  • rectal fluids
  • vaginal fluids
  • breast milk
  • What are the different types of tests?
  1. Antibody tests: they scan for antibodies in oral fluids and blood
  2. Antigen/antibody tests: they detect HIV antibodies and antigens in the blood
  3. Nucleic acid tests: they detect HIV in the blood as well
  • HIV multiplication is a 4-step process:
  1. Binding and entry: HIV fuses with the CD4 cell’s membrane en releases its viral RNA and enzyme inside
  2. Reverse transcription: the strand of RNA is turned into a double-stranded DNA molecule thanks to the reverse transcriptase
  3. Replication
  4. Budding and maturation: the virions are released out of the CD4 cell and can continue the replication process
  • What are the different infection stages of HIV?



I am just curious.
I assume a baby can be infected HIV if the mother is positive since the fetal and maternal circulation are related, even if the mother doesn’t breastfeed the baby. Is it correct?

If the mother had HIV before the baby was born yes usually, but in some cases it might not occur too, I’ve heard that about herpes as well.