[Biology][Practical-2] Brain Anatomy and Function Questions


  • The brain consumes 20% of the body’s energy levels

  • The brain processes sensory information

  • The brain is the integration and coordination system of the body

  • A stimuli generates a motor response

  • Gray matter is made of cell bodies and dendrites

  • The blood-brain barrier is made of endothelial cells

  • The blood brain barrier prevents large molecules to enter the brain

  • True or false: the blood-brain barrier has no impact on treatments (False)

  • White matter is made of axons

  • Myelin serves as an insulator

  • Myelin helps with transmitting information quicker

  • The frontal lobe is for:

  1. motor control (premotor cortex)
  2. problem-solving
  3. speech production (Broca’s area)
  • What is controlateral processing of the brain?


  • What would be the effect of a stroke on the right hemisphere of the brain? Paralysis on the left side of the body

  • There are 6 external brain structures


  • Auditory processing is done by the temporal lobe

  • The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe

  • The temporal lobe is for:

  1. hearing
  2. language comprehension
  3. memory
  • Broca’s area is for speech production and is located in the frontal lobe

  • Touch perception is permitted by the parietal lobe

  • Wernicke’s area is for language comprehension and is located in the temporal lobe

  • The brainstem is for involuntary responses

  • Balance and coordination is dictated by the cerebellum

  • What is gyrification ? Folding of the brain, for higher density

  • Enlargment of the brain enables cognitive brain capacity

  • The brain stem is composed of:

  1. the pons
  2. medulla oblongata
  3. midbrain
  • The brain stem plays an intermediate role between the brain and the spinal cord

  • The main internal structures are:


  • The hypothalamus’ main purpose is to maintain homeostasis

  • The hypothalamus plays a role in eating and drinking by stimulating the release of pituitary hormones

  • Glutamate is the neurotransmitter that regulates memory

  • GABA is the calming neurotransmitter

  • The posterior pituitary is also called neurohypophysis and the anterior pituitary is also called adenohypophysis

  • The corpus callosum connects both hemispheres

  • A lesion to the corpus callosum can cause split disorders

  • The nervous system can be divided into the central and peripheral nervous system

  • The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord

  • The peripheral nervous system is composed of peripheral nerves = cranial and spinal

  • What is the difference between the sensory division and the motor division of the peripheral nervous system?


  • The motor nervous system can be divided into

autonomic and somatic systems

  • The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary responses

  • The somatic nervous system controls voluntary movement

  • Repolarisation is caused by the opening of K+ channels

  • What are the steps of synaptic transfer?

  • The autonomic nervous system can be divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

  • The fight or flight response is mediated by the sympathetic system and the release of adrenaline + (acetylcholine)

  • The feed or breed system is mediated by the parasympathetic system and the release of acetylcholine

  • Cite at least 2 exploration methods of the brain:

  1. animal experiments
  2. lesions
  3. autopsy
  4. fMRI
  • About the sympathetic nervous system:

    • the action of the SNS is quick
    • the ganglion is close to the central nervous system
    • the pre-ganglionic fibers are short
  • About the parasympathetic nervous system:

  • Its action is a slow response:

  • the pre-ganglionic fibers are long

  • the ganglions are far from the CNS but close to the effector

  • Cite at least 3 hormones that are produced by the pituitary gland:

  1. LH
  2. FSH
  3. oxytocin
  4. ADH = vasopressin
  5. hCG
  • A neuron has 4 parts: soma + dendrites + axon + terminal buttons


  • The electrical impulse in a neuron goes from cell body to axon terminal

  • What’s the difference between a sensory and a motor neuron?

  • A resting potential is the difference of electric potential between the 2 sides, outer and inner sides, of the cell membrane

  • The ions responsible for the resting potential are K+, Na+, Ca ++, Cl- and HCO3-.

  • At the resting state, the resting potential is negative (-70 mV )

  • An action potential the inversion of the polarity of the cell membrane

  • An action potential can be divided into depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization

  • Na+ channels open during the depolarisation phase

  • Dopamine is the neurotransmitter for pleasure

  • Serotonin is the neurotransmitter that regulates the mood