BMAT 2007 Q 11 Thermal energy

Can anyone explain

  1. Substances lose energy without temperature falling during a state change(liquid to solid)
  2. Heat pass through vacuum’s by radiation, (I thought of the sun but this might be completely wrong)
  3. Less intermolecular forces as a gas vs liquid
  4. Convection current is formed as cooler liquid falls whilst warmer liquid rises, if you cool the top then I think this cycle is set up
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