Identify the question type. Although not phrased in the typical Cambridge format (“What is the assumption in the argument…”) we can easily identify that it is asking for an assumption.
Strategy Tool Kit for solving assumptions
Find the conclusions
Find the reasons
Find the unwritten link that the conclusion relies on
Discard and decide (use negation test if needed)
This basic overview of this passage talks about how education funding should be structured based on the importance of the role in society. It uses different examples to showcase what the author thinks are more deserving of funding because they have more societal benefits (Medicine, engineering, computing), and then it uses examples that have less contribution in the authors eyes (calssics, literature, art). One question that is not answered in the text is; what determines value/the level of benefit to the society? We are assuming that these classes are of less importance, so we can pick the answer that best summarizes this.
A Subjects which are of interest to individuals can also provide benefit to society.
This is the opposite of the assumption in the text. The author is saying that classics, literature, and art are more subjects of personal interest and should be funded at a lower level because the provide less benefit to society. Therefore A is incorrect.
B The training of those people who will contribute most to society requires an increase in government funding in university education;
The text is talking about relativity of importance. They are not necessarily saying that the more important areas need an increase in funding, but the author rather believes that the proportion of funding that should go to these more important areas should be higher than in the lesser important areas. So, its not about the amount of money, but rather the proportion compared to the less important subjects. Therefore B is incorrect.
C Medicine, Engineering and Computing are not very interesting subjects to study;
This cannot be inferred from the text. It calls art, classics, and literature subjects interest to the individual, but it does not mean that other courses are not interesting. It also depends on the person, someone studying medicine, engineering, or computer may find it highly interesting to study. This answer choice has too many holes and flaws, therefore C is incorrect.
D A wealthy society should not subsidise subjects which are of interest only to individuals;
This is not what the author was trying to prove and it cannot be assume. The author argues that the funding should just be less, not none. The author also states that a wealthy society should give some subsidy to these hobby subjects, which is the opposite of this statement. Therefore D is incorrect.
E The study at universities of Classics, Literature and Art provides little benefit to society;
The main argument is about having subjects the author believes to have a larger impact on society (medicine, engineering, computing) have a higher percentage of funding than lower priority subjects such as Classics, Literature, and Art. The author believes that these subjects have little benefit to society and is basing the structure of how the funding should be distributed based off benefit to society. If, however, Classics, Literature, and Art did provide a larger benefit to society, then this argument would be invalid because they would be on the same level as medicine, engineering and computing in the eyes of this argument. As a result, the funding would be equal across all these subjects because they would all be of higher importance. Therefore E is the answer.