IMAT 2017 Q40 [Transgenic Organism DNA]

Which combinations of DNA could be present in a transgenic organism?

  1. invertebrate animal DNA in mammal DNA
  2. prokaryotic DNA in plant DNA
  3. plant DNA in animal DNA

A. 1, 2 and 3
B. 2 and 3 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 1 and 2 only
E. 2 only

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The correct answer is A.

What is a transgenic organism ?

A transgenic organism is a genetically modified organism (GMO). Such a thing can be accomplished by transgenesis, which is the insertion of one or several new genes inside the genome.

How does transgenesis work?

There are multiple steps to transgenesis. The first one is to identify the gene of interest : it is either a gene that will give a new advantageous caracter to the organism or a gene that we want to study in particular.

Then, we have to incorporate the gene of interest inside a genetic construction. Those will then be multiplied and then transferred. That is possible thanks to genetic transformation.

  • It is a type of horizontal transfer : from one organism to another that ISN’T its offspring.

  • To put it simply, the DNA that contains the gene of interest is integrated into the target organism’s cells.

  • Through a process of genetic recombination, the gene of interest can be successfully integrated into the targeted cells.

What about the question ?

Each of these items refer to DNA of an organism A being transferred into the DNA of an organism B.

Because there is no discrepancy between the nature of the transferred genes and the targeted cell’s genes, it is completely possible to have :

  1. invertebrate animal DNA in mammal DNA
  2. prokaryotic DNA in plant DNA
  3. plant DNA in animal DNA