- First, find the conclusion and evidence, this will make it easier to find the argument
- Arguments are dependent on evidence to draw conclusions
- Identify the argument and generalize it
- Use the supporting evidence to help, examples should be proving a more generalized take-home message
- Prove your principle
- What is it trying to argue? If you can prove what the principle is arguing, it is likely a good principle
In the first sentence right away we find the conclusion. We can tell from the strong language commanding - ‘should’. Then the author will move into their reasons as to why this should happen. The basic principle here is that, because some people lack control, no one should be given the chance and we should not even have options in this case. This comes from how some people are obese, so because this group of people cannot control their diet, food manufacturers should reduce the sugar in these processed foods for everyone. Now that we have this general idea, let’s solve it.
A. Cigarette packets should have plain packaging and display government health warnings.
This is an example of discouraging, which you will see is the same case in all other answers but one. There is a difference between discouraging and actually not even having the option to do something. When you are discouraged, it does not stop you from smoking if you want to, but in the case of the text, you are physically prohibited from eating high sugar levels in processed foods because the companies are being asked to reduce them. Therefore A is incorrect.
B. In order to reduce sugar intake, foods with high sugar content should be taxed more heavily.
This is again an example of discouraging because you are not prevented from eating high sugar content foods but you are deterred by having to pay extra money. Also, note that this is basically the same topic (foods and sugar intake) as the question, so this should immediately raise a red flag when solving for principles. Therefore B is incorrect.
C. Power tools should have clear instructions in order to reduce the number of accidents caused by incorrect use.
Although this may not be discouraging like the other two options, it still gives you a chance to do something you are not supposed. It leaves the door open for the possibility of accidents. In order to follow the principle, the tool would have to have some kind of mechanism that activates in certain situations as a safety measure that prevents accidents. Therefore C is wrong because instructions help educate you on how not to do something, while we are looking for something that won’t even allow us to make these mistakes.
D. Labelling on food should be improved so that consumers are clear about the level of sugar in a product.
This is like a weaker version of B, while we are looking for a strong one. This is weak because it does nothing to prevent us from eating high-sugar foods, and proper labelling is the least strict way to reduce sugar intake (for example in B there are higher taxes, which is a stricter penalty). Therefore D is incorrect because it does not actually physical stop you from accessing these high-sugar foods.
E. To reduce the number of deaths caused by excessive speed, car manufacturers should incorporate speed limiters in vehicles.
This is following the same principle because there is something physically preventing you from doing something. The speed limiter does not even give you the chance to speed, regardless of whether or not you speed in the first place. This is why E is the correct answer.